Virus Infections of Ruminants
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Foot and mouth disease Foot and mouth disease FMD is a contagious viral disease that can spread very rapidly of cloven-hoofed animals. Lumpy skin disease The Lumpy skin disease virus is caused by a pox virus of the genus Capripox virus. The genus Capripox virus, has three virus affecting ruminants: the Newcastle disease Newcastle disease ND is a contagious and viral disease affecting many species of birds. ND is caused by a virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Peste des petit ruminants Peste des petit ruminants PPR is a contagious viral disease. Small ruminants goats, sheep are animals that primarily pay a heavy price to the The disease was characterized by severe enteritis, vomiting, watery Rift Valley fever Rift Valley fever RVF is a viral zoonosis that primarily affects animals but also has the capacity to infect humans.
Rinderpest Rinderpest virus RPV , a member of genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae, causes an acute and often fatal disease in cattle and other Schmallenberg virus Schmallenberg virus SBV causes congenital malformations and stillbirths in cattle, sheep, goats, bison and possibly camelids.
Sheep pox and goat pox The genus Capripoxvirus, has three virus affecting ruminants: the sheep pox, the goat pox and the lumpy skin disease. At neutral pH and moist conditions, the virus can persist for a few weeks in contaminated premises or pasture Donaldson, ; Donaldson, In some endemic areas reservoir hosts are important factors in the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease. Very little is known about the involvement of Indian buffalo in the epidemiology of FMD, although they will develop clinical disease and transmit infection to cattle.
Other wild ruminants are susceptible to FMD, but usually as the recipient of FMD virus from cattle; there are no examples of FMD being maintained in a wild ruminant population other than in African buffalo. Ruminants which have recovered from infection, or vaccinated animals which have contact with live virus without developing disease, can become persistently infected, goats for up to 3 months, sheep up to 9 months, cattle sometimes over 3 years, and African buffalo over 5 years.
The virus can be recovered from the pharynx using a metal sampling cup probang.
Although under experimental conditions it has not been possible to demonstrate transmission from these carrier animals to susceptible in-contact animals, there is considerable field evidence that they can initiate fresh outbreaks of disease. Pigs do not become carriers Salt, - review. Virus excretion in semen and milk may occur up to 4 days before the appearance of clinical signs, although it is maximum when signs are first seen. As it is predominantly the developing world in which FMD is present, the disease has prevented many of the poorer countries from exploiting the rich markets of Europe, North America and Japan.
In FMD entered Taiwan; the consequent control programme involved widespread vaccination and slaughter of over 4 million pigs. It is possible they may never recover their export market as other countries have taken this over. In countries such as Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa, which export meat to Europe and in which FMD is present in wildlife, fences and vaccinated buffer zones have been established to separate domestic buffalo and the cattle from wild ungulates.
Schmallenberg virus infection of ruminants: challenges and opportunities for veterinarians.
FMD had been eradicated from many South American countries in order to take advantage of new export markets, but there has been a recent re-introduction of FMD into Argentina, Uruguay and Southern Brazil. Control programmes have been started in India and South-East Asia. FMD can severely disrupt dairy production by reducing milk yield and causing secondary complications. Although there are reports in the literature of human infection with FMD virus, this is extremely rare, and the clinical signs very mild. More commonly humans develop a hand and foot disease due to coxsackie B virus infection.
There is no specific treatment once disease has become established, other than supportive therapy, and antibiotics to prevent secondary infections. Various novel approaches for treatment and prevention of FMD and other viral infections have been proposed. Inhibition of FMD virus replication and reduced production of escape mutants can be demonstrated in vivo using, for example, small interfering RNA targeting the conserved regions of viral genome Liu et al. Other experimental options include mutagenic antiviral drugs such as ribavirin, or targeting drugs at viral components such as the highly conserved 3C protease of FMDV, which is required to cleave the precursor virus into functional proteins Birtley et al.
Animals in endemic areas may be given some protection with prophylactic vaccination. The seven serotypes of FMD virus are immunologically distinct, and recovery from infection or vaccination with one serotype does not provide protection against the other six.
In addition, within each serotype there are a large number of strains representing a spectrum of antigenic characteristics. It is therefore necessary to antigenically match the outbreak strain with a suitable vaccine strain, or even produce a new vaccine strain. Protection with even a closely matched vaccine will only last for approximately 6 months, and in endemic situations it is usually necessary to vaccinate cattle three times yearly, and sheep twice-yearly.
Specific Chapter/Section References
Calves from vaccinated cows are protected for up to 4 months by colostral antibody, although this may be for a shorter time depending on the frequency of vaccination. The dose of vaccine varies according to the manufacturer and whether they are able to concentrate the antigen. There are no live vaccines officially in use worldwide.
Adjuvant for ruminant FMD vaccines can be either aluminium hydroxide plus saponin or oil; for pigs it must be oil, either as a single or double emulsion. Other control measures should also be used to control outbreaks such as quarantine, disinfection and movement restrictions. More extensive slaughter policies, including culling of animals on adjacent premises and small ruminants and pigs within 3 km of infected premises, were used during the UK epidemic in The effectiveness of such pre-emptive slaughter in controlling the spread of infection is controversial. It is important to note that vaccination is now expected to be considered as part of any response to an FMD outbreak in a free country and that those countries which hold FMD antigen banks should be prepared with practical contingency plans for deployment of vaccination should the situation arise.
Most FMD-free countries maintain the option to vaccinate by participating in FMD antigen banks, which they would take advantage of should the slaughter policy prove ineffective.
Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus infection in sheep and goats flocks in Germany, 2012–2013
There is still some reluctance to use vaccine because of the possibility that some of the vaccinated cattle that contacted live field virus would become carriers. However, recent scientific advances should allow a more rapid return to FMD-free status. This could be achieved through a combined approach involving improved vaccines and better use of rapid diagnostic tests to detect early infection and persistent infection accurately and competent data management.
This is reflected by the increased priority given to vaccination in current FMD contingency plans, such as those of the European Union countries Laddomada, The use of vaccine delays the re-establishment of freedom from FMD status, as it affects international trade Kitching et al. This restriction, however, is now less onerous: the OIE reduced the time period for regaining FMD-free status following emergency vaccination from the original 12 to 6 months, provided that non-structural proteins NSP tests are used to document that the remaining vaccinated population is free of infection OIE, Modern FMD vaccines perform very well both for regular prophylactic vaccination programmes and for the control of outbreaks.
Vaccination inhibits local virus replication and excretion in the oropharynx and thus reduces or prevents virus transmission.
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It may also inhibit the development of the carrier state Barnett et al. Emergency vaccines contain higher antigen payloads than conventional vaccines; they induce rapid immunity often within 4 days and offer wider antigenic coverage. It is important to identify the optimum cross-protective vaccine strain for use in an outbreak Barnett and Carabin, Many FMD-free countries now have strategic reserves of concentrated, purified vaccine antigen at ultra-low temperatures for use in an emergency situation Barnett and Carabin, The purification of FMD viral antigens to remove non-structural proteins NSP allows differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals.
Book Ref. - Virus Infections of Ruminants (Dinter, Z. & Morein, B.)
Other approaches, such as synthetic peptide and DNA vaccines, are under investigation, see for example Guo-HuiChen et al. The three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus at 2. Nature, Panafrican Animal Health Yearbook Alexandersen S, Donaldson AI, Further studies to quantify the dose of natural aerosols of foot-and-mouth disease virus for pigs. Epidemiology and Infection, 2 ; 43 ref.
Studies of quantitative parameters of virus excretion and transmission in pigs and cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 4 Aspects of the persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in animals - the carrier problem. Microbes and Infection, 4 10 Barnett PV, Carabin H, A review of emergency foot-and-mouth disease FMD vaccines. Vaccine, Barteling SJ, Modern inactivated foot-and-mouth disease FMD vaccines: historical background and key elements in production and use. In: Foot-and-mouth Disease: Current Perspectives.
Wymondham, UK: Horizon Bioscience, Barteling SJ, Vreeswijk J, Developments in foot-and-mouth disease vaccines. Vaccine, 9 2 ; ref. Review of foot-and-mouth disease virus survival in animal excretions and on fomites.
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Veterinary Record, 22 Possibility of sexual transmission of foot-and-mouth disease from African buffalo to cattle. Veterinary Record, 3 ; 16 ref. Natural transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus between African buffalo Syncerus caffer and impala Aepyceros melampus in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Epidemiology and Infection, 3 Crystal structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3C protease: new insights into catalytic mechanism and cleavage specificity.
Journal of Biological Chemistry, Comparative evaluation of six ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Comparison of two 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of multiple-serotype foot-and-mouth disease in a cattle population in an area of endemicity. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Brown F, Chemical basis of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus. Biochemical Society Transaction, Antigenic structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Immunochemistry of viruses.
The basis for serodiagnosis and vaccines.
Elsevenier Science Publishers, BV, Use of a portable real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 11 ; 16 ref. Developments in diagnostic techniques for differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth disease. The Veterinary Journal, Natural transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from African buffalo Syncerus caffer to cattle in a wildlife area of Zimbabwe.
Veterinary Record, 10 ; 11 ref.