The Mathematical Theory of Black Holes

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They do so in matter-antimatter pairs, one of which has positive energy and the other negative energy. Ordinarily, these pairs immediately annihilate each other.

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But if this pair popping occurred at the boundary of a black hole's event horizon, one particle could, theoretically, get gobbled up while the other rocketed off into space. If the negative-energy particle were eaten, the black hole's mass would shrink by a tiny amount, and the object would emit a minuscule bit of radiation.

Singularities and Black Holes

Hawking worked out this idea in , which is why this hypothesized black-hole light is known as Hawking radiation , or Hawking-Bekenstein radiation. Nobody has spotted such emissions yet, but most physicists believe the emissions exist. Therefore, they posit, all black holes will shrink away to nothingness eventually, after there's no matter left for them to scarf down. Though unquestionably a genius, Hawking wasn't always right, and one of his high-profile mistakes concerned black holes.

1. Spacetime Singularities

The cosmologist famously posited that the information carried by every particle — data characterizing its spin and mass, for example — hoovered up by a black hole would be lost when the black hole evaporated. Instead, this information must seep back out into the universe via Hawking radiation before the black hole dissipates, most physicists think. Hawking eventually came around to this position, Banks said.

Black holes were first identified in Einstein's general relativity

Hawking's black-hole work has also spurred physicists to rethink their understanding of the universe on a more general level, Banks said. Previously, physicists had assumed that entropy scales with a system's volume, so the entropy-area link that Hawking and Bekenstein established came as a big surprise.

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ISBN 13: 9780195081473

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On the mathematical theory of black holes I - Sergiu Klainerman