Polymer Reference Book
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Polymer Reference Book. Polymer Reference Book Author: T. Default Title. Add to cart. All types of modern instrumentation are covered including those used in general quality control, research analysis, process monitoring and for determining the mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical characteristics. Aspects such as automated analysis and computerised control of instruments are also included. The book covers not only instrumentation for the determination of metals, non metals, functional groups, polymer structural analysis and end-groups in the main types of polymers now in use commercially, but also the analysis of minor non-polymeric components of the polymer formulation, whether they be deliberately added, such as processing additives, or whether they occur adventitiously, such as residual volatiles and monomers and water.
Fingerprinting techniques for the rapid identification of polymers and methods for the examination of polymer surfaces and polymer defects are also discussed. The book gives an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the present state-of-the-art of the theory and availability of instrumentation needed to effect chemical and physical analysis of polymers. Over 1, references are included.
The book should be of great interest to all those who are engaged in the examination of polymers in industry, university research establishments, and general education. The book is intended for all staff who are concerned with instrumentation in the polymer laboratory, including laboratory designers, work planners, chemists, engineers, chemical engineers and those concerned with the implementation of specifications and process control.
Preface 1 Determination of Metals 1. Roy Crompton was Head of the polymer analysis research department of a major international polymer producer for some 15 years. In the early fifties, he was heavily engaged in the development of methods of analysis for low-pressure polyolefins produced by the Ziegler-Natta route, including work on high-density polyethylene and polypropylene. He was responsible for the development of methods of analysis of the organoaluminum catalysts used for the synthesis of these polymers.
He was also responsible for the development of thin-layer chromatography for the determination of various types of additives in polymers and did pioneering work on the use of TLC to separate polymer additives and to examine the separated additives by infrared and mass spectrometry.
Polymer Reference Book
He retired in and has since been engaged as a consultant in the field of analytical chemistry and has written extensively on this subject, with some 20 books published. Related Products. The gene coding for this enzyme has been used for recombinant expression of CGP biosynthesis in various prokaryotes. Meanwhile, also transgenic eukaryotes, yeasts and plants, were enabled to synthesize the polymer in considerable amounts.
Degradation products of CGP are usually dipeptides which are then split to free amino acids by intracellular dipeptidases. Biotechnical interest of CGP is high; products resulting from its biodegradation could be applied in various biochemical, medical or industrial applications.
Biosynthesis and Application of Poly gamma-glutamic acid. Levan: Applications and Perspectives.
Levan, a homopolysaccharide which is composed of D-fructofuranosyl residues joined by 2,6 with multiple branches by 2,1 linkages has great potential as a functional biopolymer in foods, feeds, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Levan can be used as food or a feed additive with prebiotic and hypocholesterolemic effects.
Levan is also shown to exert excellent cell-proliferating, skin moisturizing, and skin irritation-alleviating effects as a blending component in cosmetics. Levan derivatives such as sulfated, phosphated, or acetylated levans are asserted to be anti-AIDS agents. In addition, levan is used as a coating material in a drug delivery formulation. However, there are some limitations for the industrial applications of levan due to its weak chemical stability of in solution and the complex process to purify levan.
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Once the limitations are solved, the market for levan will gradually increase in the various fields. Microbial Hyaluronic Acid Biosynthesis.
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Hyaluronic acid HA is a biopolymer with valuable applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Currently, HA is produced commercially by either extraction from animal tissues i. Increased concerns over the contamination of animal derived products with infectious agents have made bacterial fermentation a more desirable production system to meet future demands.
Substrate cost is a minor factor for this high value polymer, hence strain and process development has focused on improving quality, in particular molecular weight. Little is known about what controls molecular weight of beta-polysaccharides such as HA. This is even true for abundant beta-polysaccharides such as chitin and cellulose. Several groups including ours have pursued various hypotheses for the past decade, but no hypothesis has captured the Mw regulation observed in bioreactors.
The HA synthase is responsible for all steps in polymerisation and most likely also translocation. In vitro studies have identified several residues essential for high molecular weight and maximum molecular weight appears to be an intrinsic feature of the synthase. The actual molecular weight realised in fermentation, however, depends on fermentation conditions.
In general, high molecular weight is observed under conditions with excess resources. Surprisingly, however, preliminary studies cannot relate these findings to higher levels of the UDP-sugars used in biosynthesis. Metabolic engineering and the recent advance in omics technologies are providing new opportunities. Heterologous hosts such as B. Polymers derived from petrochemicals are indispensable materials in mankind's daily life.
Owing to the increasing environmental concerns and increasing oil price, there has recently been much interest in developing processes for the production of monomers from renewable resources. In this chapter, we review fermentative production of three and four-carbon organic acids that can be used as monomers for polymer synthesis.
Microorganisms and bioprocesses employing them for the production of lactic, acrylic, succinic, fumaric, and aspartic acids are reviewed.
Metabolic pathways and characteristics for the formation of these acids are detailed along with metabolic engineering strategies. Microorganisms naturally produce a wide variety of carbohydrate molecules, yet large-scale manufacturing requires production levels much higher than the natural capacities of these organisms. Metabolic engineering efforts generate microbial strains capable of meeting the industrial demand for high synthesis levels. This chapter reviews the achievements and challenges of engineering microorganisms to produce two categories of carbohydrates: oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
As both oligosaccharide and polysaccharide synthesis are carbon and energy-intensive processes, improved production of these products require similar metabolic engineering strategies. Strategies unique to polysaccharide synthesis are also discussed.
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Metabolically engineered strains have successfully produced many carbohydrate products, and many unexplored strategies, made available from recent progress in systems biology, can be used to engineer even better microbial catalysts. Microbial Exopolysaccharides: Variety and Potential Applications.
Microorganisms synthesize a wide spectrum of multifunctional polysaccharides including intracellular polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides EPS. Exopolysaccharides generally constitute of monosaccharides and some non-carbohydrate substituents such as acetate, pyruvate, succinate, and phosphate.
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Owing to the wide diversity in composition, exopolysaccharides have found multifarious applications in various food and pharmaceutical industries. Many microbial EPS provide properties that are almost identical to the gums currently in use. With innovative approaches, efforts are underway to supersede the traditionally used plant and algal gums by their microbial counterparts. Moreover, considerable progress has been made in discovering and developing new microbial EPS that possess novel industrial significance.
The present article accentuates on providing a glimpses of varieties and applications of microbial exopolysaccharides. Polyhydroxyalkanoates PHAs are organic polyesters composed of R hydroxy fatty acids which are synthesized by most bacteria as a carbon and energy storage material in times of unbalanced nutrient availability.
They are deposited intracellularly as insoluble spherical inclusions called PHA granules which consist of a polyester core surrounded by a phospholipid layer with attached proteins. The PHA synthase remains covalently attached to the polyester and thus to the PHA granule; other granule-associated proteins are involved in depolymerization, regulation or structural stabilization. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of PHAs and PHA granules, including granule biogenesis and granule-associated proteins.