Neuroscience of Clinical Psychiatry: The Pathophysiology of Behavior and Mental Illness (2nd Edition)
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One had residents directly contribute to that teaching [ 30 ], and another utilized an interactive paradigm that emphasized active learning principles [ 11 ]. Examples of each of the principles are provided below. One program undertook a needs assessment involving a task force of faculty from diverse clinical perspectives and residents in order to determine the scope of the curriculum and to set goals, which included that residents should appreciate the centrality of neuroscience to the future practice of psychiatry [ 11 ].
Integration of the content in one program occurred across knowledge arising from animal and human works, pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, and individual and social processes [ 7 ] or by integrating the neurosciences with clinical cases in another program [ 30 ]. Sequence occurred both from the general to the particular and from introductory to more complex material [ 29 ] or by developing expertise in which new information was increasingly incorporated into a scaffold built on previous knowledge and experience [ 30 ].
Continuity was demonstrated by illustrating material at various points from introductory and overview sessions to presumably more complex ideas [ 29 ]. Articulation was described by a stepwise manner in which the curriculum was instituted over residency levels [ 10 ]. Transferability was illustrated by an examination testing how learning objectives were met when those questions assisted transfer of knowledge to critical reading skills [ 9 ].
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All of the curricula were evaluated positively. Residents perceived their knowledge to be adequate on completion of the course [ 29 ], gained confidence in finding and reading basic science articles [ 30 ], perceived that revising a course with a diagnostic to a research domain orientation was more practical and of higher quality [ 7 ], and rated lectures [ 10 ] and courses [ 11 ] well. Of note, in this same program [ 9 ], the residents listed their participation in grand rounds and conferences as stemming from interests stimulated by the neuroscience curriculum, and 3 of 20 residents entered the National Institute of Mental Health research fellowships.
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The publication of this journal issue with its special collection of papers on clinical neuroscience teaching represents a significant advance to the field of psychiatric education. Although it has been recommended that clinical neuroscience should become a core curriculum area in psychiatry [ 23 ] and although there is an increasing amount of neuroscience content in residency programs [ 31 ], we found that there was a relative dearth of published comprehensive model curricula before the publication of this edition.
The four curricula published here [ 7 , 9 , 10 , 11 ] will help to rectify this deficit. These comprehensively detailed educational resources together provide an outstanding set of resources for curriculum planners. In order to bring clinical neuroscience teaching forward in the education of medical students and residents in psychiatry, goals and the specific curricular objectives for teaching the neurosciences should be developed.
These goals and objectives in turn should reflect a thoughtful approach to how the neurosciences are conceptualized and defined. Similarly, they should reflect a very thoughtful approach to what should be taught. For example, a changing environment in medical education has led to a reassessment of assumptions and practices about what should be taught in neuroanatomy [ 32 ]. Although broad goals were described for these curricula, when defining a learning objective, a statement is required of 1 observable, behavioral outcomes, 2 criteria for successful performance of the behaviors, and 3 the situational context in which the behaviors are to be performed [ 28 , 33 ].
We also need to learn more about the relative efficacy of teaching methods for imparting knowledge and skills. In particular, we need to learn about how to most efficaciously teach the skills of synthesizing and critically appraising newly published and potentially clinically relevant findings in the neurosciences. We have emphasized here how it is important to assess the curriculum by the degree to which it implements basic principles of construction and organization.
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We have exampled how the six model curricula attempt to answer eight guiding questions central to curriculum design [ 28 ]. Any one curriculum is best judged, however, by assessing these guiding principles and their interrelationships together. In addition, the six curricula presented an evaluation of instruction which were consistently positive and encouraging to the educators.
Moreover, the instructional assessments were used to feedback and modify various components of the curriculum including goal setting, selection of strategies for teaching, and the construction of particular elements of the curriculum. The curricula in this special collection and those revealed in our literature search should be considered in the context of a wide number of educational resources, some of which have not yet undergone peer review but may be of value to our readers.
Our search revealed educational components including electronic slide presentations and case-based rounds for trainees from developmental medicine, education, neurology, and psychiatry [ 16 ]; online modules [ 17 , 18 ]; curricula proposals [ 8 ]; interdisciplinary neurobehavior rounds [ 20 ]; approaches for constructing neurobiological formulations [ 24 ]; as well as curricula on specific neuropsychiatry topics [ 25 , 26 , 27 ].
These and other resources [ 34 , 35 ] will all contribute to the development of a national and international set of resources that will assist in developing the knowledge and skills of residents and practicing clinicians. One potential and very positive offshoot of this effort is that some residents might become inspired to undertake research in neuroscience or neuropsychiatry [ 9 ]. These curricula and related teaching resources should be considered alongside other strategies for developing a neuropsychiatry workforce. These strategies might include posting videos of each class session [ 11 ] or developing an award for resource-poor programs to fund prominent clinical neuroscience educators to visit and train the faculty and residents of those poorly resourced programs.
The latter model has been applied to teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy [ 36 ].
Teaching Clinical Neuroscience to Psychiatry Residents: Model Curricula
Neuroscience is a complex, sometimes difficult to learn, and rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field that will severely challenge educators and curriculum designers. We therefore applaud our authors for promoting our understanding of education in the clinical neurosciences. The remarkable clinical neuroscience curricula identified here will contribute substantially to the transfer of information across programs and to developing the future generations of psychiatrists. Skip to main content Skip to sections.
Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Editorial First Online: 04 February Methods We searched for all English language and PubMed articles describing a general neuroscience-focused curriculum for psychiatry residents using combinations of search terms including neuroscience , neuropsychiatry , education , teaching , training , psychiatry , residents , and curriculum. We sought to describe individual programs in terms of the country of origin of the program and number of resident recipients and their year of training, the number of teaching sessions, and the topics and skills taught.
We also sought to identify the methods and outcomes of teaching, as well as features pertinent to curriculum design. Adapted from Oliva [ 28 ]. We found six articles that met our inclusion criteria [ 7 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 29 , 30 ]. The six model curricula were US programs conducted at single sites, four of which were published in this issue of the journal [ 7 , 9 , 10 , 11 ]. Class sizes ranged from about 7 to 18, and for programs where data were available, the number of sessions per year ranged from about 8 to Disciplines represented by faculty included neurosurgery [ 29 ] and neurology, neuroradiology, toxicology, otorhinolaryngology, pharmacy, and pathology [ 11 ].
Table 2 Characteristics of model neuroscience curricula. Authors Class size Resident levels No.
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Disclosures The authors have no conflicts to disclose. The future of psychiatry as clinical neuroscience. Acad Med. Insel TR.
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Integrating neuroscience in the training of psychiatrists: patient-centered didactic curriculum based on adult learning principles. Acad Pscyhiatry Neuropsychiatry and neuroscience education of psychiatry trainees: attitudes and barriers.
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Clinical neurosciences training for psychiatrists: one proposed model. Promoting interdisciplinary collaboration: trainees addressing siloed medical education. National Institute of Mental Health neuroscience and psychiatry modules. Accessed on 20 Dec National Institute of Mental Health neuroscience and psychiatry modules: b. An integrated preclerkship curriculum in neuroscience, psychiatry and neurology. Book Description Condition: New. Bookseller Inventory ST Seller Inventory ST Book Description Hardback.
Not Signed; Neuroscience of Clinical Psychiatry: The Pathophysiology of Behavior and Mental Illness, Second EditionLittle information from this complex and evolving field of neuroscience has been readily accessible to the clinical psychiatrist on the front lines of patient care, let alone to the resident prepar. Book Description Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Provides readers with a basic link between the science of the brain and the treatment of common mental health disorders.
This title includes practical applications, insightful illustrations, and review questions following each chapter help solidify your grasp of neuropathology and its link to mental health disorders and their treatment. Num Pages: pages, Dimension: x x Weight in Grams: Seller Inventory V Book Description Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Books ship from the US and Ireland.