Natural mineral nanotubes : properties and applications
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Single- wall nanotubes, in particular, show more dominant properties originating from this one-dimensionality, which becomes more dominant as its diameter becomes smaller. Another important factor controlling unique properties comes from a variation of tubule structures that are caused by the rolling up of a honeycomb sheet of carbon atoms. There are many possible ways to do this, depending upon the direction of rolling. This could result in many chiral arrangements spiral arrangement of carbon atoms of the nanotube structures as well as a variety of diameters.
After the first report of the discovery of carbon nanotubes, a few theoretical condensed matter physicists got interested in this new material and predicted electronic band structures for single-wall carbon nanotubes that depend on diameter and chirality [Hamada et al. A carbon nanotube is a simple system composed of a reasonable number of atoms, which enable us to calculate theoretical electronic structures in detail through computer simulations.
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As a result, single-wall carbon nanotubes were found to be electrically semiconducting or metallic depending upon their diameters and chirality. Such important physical properties were later proved experimentally in various electrical and optical measurements. Therefore, a single piece of single-wall carbon nanotube can be a transistor. Indeed, such a transistor was built some years later. This is one of the reasons why for industry became interested in carbon nanotubes.
Interest in carbon nanotubes is not limited to transistors, and many other industrial applications utilizing the unique properties of carbon nanotubes include the electron emitter source with high current density, highly conductive electrical wire, the high thermal conductor for the heat radiator, the probe needle for scanning probe microscopes, molecular-sieves, gas adsorbers, carriers for drug delivery systems in nano-bio medicine, etc. These possible applications play an important role in nanotechnology, and are currently being investigated the world over.
Here I would like to explain the reason for my answer. The origin of the discovery could be traced back in the beginning of my research carrier, which started in , when I was a post-doctoral research fellow in Prof. We developed a high resolution electron microscope and its use, and successfully recorded the first electron micrographs showing individual metal atoms in some oxide crystals [Iijima et al.
The work involved understanding electron diffraction in the crystal and electron optics of the magnetic lenses of the electron microscope. An essential part of the physics of high resolution electron microscopy was almost finished by the end of the s.
During this period I had many occasions to examine carbon materials among many other materials under a high resolution electron microscope at the level of atomic resolution. Works related to the materials are: the imaging of grassy carbon, atomic structure analysis of amorphous carbon materials[Iijima, J.
Microscopy, , 99 ], imaging atomic steps on thin graphite films [Iijima, Optik, 48, ], imaging single tungsten atoms distributed on a thin graphite film [Optik, 48, ] and the imaging of small graphite particles [Iijima, J. Growth, 50, , Iijima,J. This last work is concerned with the imaging of multi-wall carbon nanotubes and even fullerene molecules of C60 that were recorded five years before the discovery of fullerene molecules [Kroto et al. All of these accumulated experiences and knowledge obtained from various types of carbon materials allowed me to immediately get to the problem and solve it, when I accidentally came across carbon nanotubes later.
The high resolution electron microscopy is my life-long research theme.
Hydroxyapatite–Carbon Nanotube Composites for Biomedical Applications: A Review
In this context, I should say that the carbon nanotube is only one of my many research subjects. Besides my experience with carbon materials, work with other materials led me to the discovery of carbon nanotubes. The metal nanoparticles can also be produced by other ways, including reduction of oxides or oxides solid solutions. The technique is based on a unique Co-Mo catalyst formulation that inhibits the sintering of Co particles and therefore inhibits the formation of undesired forms of carbon that lower the selectivity.
During the SWNT reaction, cobalt is progressively reduced from the oxidic state to the metallic form.
Oxidation Acid treatment Annealing Ultrasonication Magnetic Purification Functionalization Cutting Micro filtration Toxicity Aspects 28 : Determining the toxicity of carbon nanotubes has been one of the most pressing questions in nanotechnology. Gap energy of the semiconducting tubes is related to the chirality. Determination of photoluminescence is carried out in the unbundled CNTs.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS : This implies chemical interaction with organic compounds or gas absorption, and depends on the chemical structure of carbon nanotubes; also chemical functionalization can be judged. Also simultaneous determination of atomic structure and electronic density of state DOS Neutron diffraction : Neutron diffraction pattern can be affected by various factors like finite size of nanotubes bundles, number of tubes in bundles, and nanotubes diameters polydispersivity. Determination of structural features such as bond length and possible distortion of hexagonal network is possible by using this method.
For smallest diameters; CNTs a distinction between armchair, zigzag and chiral nanotubes can be achieved. Infrared spectroscopy IR : IR spectroscopy is used to determine impurities remaining from synthesis or molecules capped on the nanotube surface. Also some Nanoprobes and sensors which mostly involves Transistors and Ultra capacitors. Biomedical Applications suggests that the carbon nanotubes are suitable scaffold materials for osteoblast proliferation and bone formation.
The released Cisplatin had been effective in terminating the growth of human lung cancer cells, while the SWNHs alone did not show anticancer activity. Anticancer drug Polyphosphazene platinum givenwith nanotubes had enhanced permeability, distribution and retention in the brain due to controlled lipophilicity of nanotubes. They can be used as lubricants or glidants in tablet manufacturing due to nanosize and sliding nature of graphite layers bound with vander waals forces.
Functionalized carbon nanotubes are reported for targeting of Amphotericin B to Cells. Antibiotic, Doxorubicin given with nanotubes is reported for enhanced intracellular penetration. Structural Applications includes tennis rackets, bicycle parts, golf balls, golf clubs, and baseball bats, also Ideal for synthetic muscle. Carbon nanotube technology has shown to have the potential to alter drug delivery and biosensing methods for the better, and thus, carbon nanotubes have recently garnered interest in the field of medicine. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy 32 : Researchers have recently developed a new approach to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the treatment of cancer using substituted Carborane-Appended Water-Soluble single-wall carbon nanotubes.
Substituted C2B10 carborane cages were successfully attached to the side walls of single wall carbon nanotubes SWCNTs via nitrene cycloaddition. The decapitations of these C2B10 carborane cages, with the appended SWCNTs intact, were accomplished by the reaction with sodium hydroxide in refluxing ethanol.
During base reflux, the three-membered ring formed by the nitrene and SWCNT was opened to produce water-soluble SWCNTs in which the side walls were functionalized by both substituted nido-C2B9 carborane units and ethoxide moieties.
A review on carbon nanotubes in an environmental protection and green engineering perspective
Nano Letters , , 9 9 : — Mintmire, J. Cantwell, J Morton "The impact resistance of composite materials - a review". Composites, ; 22 5 : — Kroto, J. Heath, S. O'Brien, R. Curl, and R. Smalley, Nature; ; , Science, ; : — Collins, Philip G. Jensen, W. Mickelson, A. Kis, and A. Buckling and kinking force measurements on individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes. B 76, ; Popov et al. Lu, X. Chemical Reviews, ; 10 : — Hong, Seunghun; Myung, S.
Nature Nanotechnology, ; 2 4 : — Haruyama et al. Pop, Eric et al. Nano Letters, ; 6 1 ; 96— Sinha, Saion et al. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, ; 7 6 ; — Composites Science and Technology, ; — Jung, S. Ebbesen, T. Walker Jr. Properties of Carbon Formed".
Chiang, I. Bandow, Shunji, Rao, A. Shelimov, K. O, Rinzler, A. Adv Exp Med Biol. Material science and Engineering, B , Ajayan, P. Baughman, R. Yinghuai, A. Peng, K. Carpenter, J. Maguire, N.
Hosmane, and M. Through a mix of review and new data, Churchman et al. The role of water, pH and other variables in the formation of halloysite, particularly in soils, is reviewed. In addition, the opposite charges on silanol and aluminol surfaces across the interlayer space over all but extreme pHs are suggested as a new idea for a driving force behind the intercalation of water in halloysite. Intercalation with organic molecules is employed to probe the structure of halloysite, and the contrasting behaviour with that of kaolinite together with some similarities to that of dickite seems to provide further support for a distinctive 2-layer periodicity in the layer stacking sequence of halloysite.
The various roles of Fe in influencing halloysite morphology either by isomorphous substitution or as external accessory Fe-oxides are also reviewed, pointing to a complex topic to unravel. Consideration is given to such factors as their origins, relationships with volcanic glass and allophane, with crystalline rocks, with iron, rock fabric and organic matter as possible contributors to the occurrence of halloysite with spherical, spheroidal and related shapes. This review concludes that much still remains to be learnt about spherical halloysite, as for other forms of the mineral.
Six papers are all concerned with the nanotechnological applications of HNTs, which has been the main driver of the recent surge in research and technology activity that is shown in Fig.