Has Science Found God? The Latest Results in the Search for Purpose in the Universe

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The view has been that selfishness, rather than cooperation, is favoured by evolution. But this objection has been overcome in the past two decades by a large body of research on the evolution of cooperation. In short, this research shows that complex cooperation will emerge among self-interested individuals if they are organised so that they benefit from their cooperative acts — and if free riders and other non-cooperators are restrained or punished.


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Readers interested in a more detailed discussion of why biologists have been so slow to accept that there is a direction to evolution should read my pre-press article for the journal Foundations of Science. Where will evolution go from here?

Book review - Has Science Found God?

Extrapolating the trajectory into the future is reasonably straightforward, at least initially. The next major transition on Earth would be the emergence of a sustainable and cooperative global society. As with cooperatives at all other levels, the global society would curb internal conflict and destructive competition, including war and pollution. Past transitions demonstrate how this might be organised. Extrapolating the trajectory further would see the continued expansion of the scale of cooperative organisation out into the solar system and beyond.


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  5. Wherever possible, this expansion would be likely to occur through cooperative linkage with other living processes, rather than by "empire building". The possibility of life arising elsewhere seems high, and while the details of evolution on other planets are likely to differ, the general form of the evolutionary trajectory would be universal.

    If the trajectory continued in this way, the scale of cooperative organisation would expand throughout the universe, comprised of living processes and intelligence from multiple origins. As it increased in intelligence and scale, its command over matter, energy and other resources would also expand, as would its power to achieve whatever objectives it chose.

    What might organised life and intelligence do with this increasing power? One possible answer was developed as an attempt to solve the "fine-tuning problem" — the enigma of why the fundamental laws and parameters of the universe seem to be fine-tuned to support the emergence of life, with even slight changes leading to a universe in which life is unlikely to emerge. Supposing the trajectory of evolution eventually produces life and intelligence with sufficient power and knowledge to reproduce the universe itself? This intelligent universe would fine-tune "offspring" universes so that they are even more conducive to the emergence and development of life and intelligence.

    It means Dembski's law violates the second law of thermodynamics. The universe is an isolated system. Thus, it would appear that no gain of conventional information negative entropy. However, the universe could have begun in complete disorder without violating the second law, and local pockets of order can still form as time progresses. This is made possible by the expansion of the universe, which continually opens room for order to form. Suppose we have two magnets, one sitting on the top of the other.

    Did God Create the Universe?

    Because of their mutual attraction, only the two configuration shown, either both north poles up or both south poles up. We open the window and a random breeze comes through and knocks the magnets apart. Assume they must always land vertically. Now, because the poles are no longer in contact, the four configurations are possible.

    Thus, the information in system has increased by one bit as a result of a chance process. Certain "no free lunch" theorems have been proven which show the performance of an algorithm when averaged over all cost functions performs no better or worse then any other algorithm, including blind search. Dembski uses this result to show Darwinian mechanism are no better than chance. However, Richard Wein points out that type of search algorithms addressed by no-free-lunch theorems, including evolutionary ones, do not apply to biological evolution. He also admits that he is a Platonist who regards proven mathematical truths as more real than the concrete objects of our experience.

    For example, these laws did not determine the particular orientations of planetary orbits. In the linear big bang scenario, different parts of the sky would have never been in contact and thus unable to reach the equilibrium. On the contrary, in exponential inflation scenario different parts of the sky were easily in contact. Besides, it is cooling as the universe expands. However, the maximum entropy allowable entropy of the universe increases with the square of R. This allows order to form locally. Suppose each day you empty your kitchen waste basket into yard.

    Pretty soon the yard will have no room left for trash. However, if you dig your yard, you can get more room for trash, which means even the number of trash increases, you can keep your kitchen order. For each visible photon that Earth receives from the Sun, it emits twenty infrared photons back to universe because of energy conservation. Each photon can be regarded as one bit of entropy, in this process, the Sun loses 1 bit of entropy and Earth loses a net of 19 bits.

    Astronomers See Evidence of Something Unexpected in the Universe

    Thus the Sun becomes more orderly by 1 bit, Earth becomes more orderly by 19 bits, and the rest of universe more disorderly by 20 bits. The local ordering of the Sun and Earth is made possible by the fact that the maximum entropy of the universe is much greater than its actual entropy. Since a black hole has maximum entropy for an object of its size, it follows that the universe had maximum entropy at this early moment. The relative strength of the gravitational force is reflected in the mass of proton.

    Cosmological constant is often referred to as a fudge factor. There is no fundamental basis for taking it's zero, although it is predicted to be zero by a principle called supersymmetry. An exponential expansion of the early universe was seen to follow from Einstein's equations in the absence of energy and matter with the curvature of space given by the cosmological constant.

    Whatever begins has a cause.


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    • Universal trajectory!

    The universe began to exist. Therefore, the universe has a cause. Why doesn't a broken glass reassemble, why doesn't a dead man rise? The answer is: all of them is possible. Ludwing Boltzmann proved that an isolated system containing many particles moving randomly, the system will tend to an equilibrium state in which entropy, disorder, of the system maximizes as time moves forward. However, he noted that the direction of time can be regarded as being defined as the direction of increasing entropy.

    In other words, the arrow of time is just a statistical definition. Although many scientists since Boltzmann have sought to explain the arrow of time in terms of non-statistical principles, none have succeeded in doing so.

    Science Continues to Reveal God

    Uncertainty principle makes it impossible to measure any time interval or distance smaller than Planck units. It implies that no other physical quantity can be measured which means information is loss, which indicates complete uncertainty or maximum entropy. Most of cosmologists think uncaused quantum fluctuations led to inflation of universe. First, some people worry about high energy densities in which experiments in LHC in order to understand early moments of the universe may cause the universe to blow up. Second, the expansion occurs under the condition in which the universe is empty of matter or radiation.

    Gravitational pressure from that matter is holding off the explosion. Sounds like you plan on getting off on that, in fact. Hmmm…tormenting beings in a horrible place of fiery hell? Yes…what a marvelous place your merciful god has created. You must be so proud of that psychopathic plan. Basketballs do not make other basketballs, humans do make other humans — if anything we should be looking to our parents for direction. In my case, my parents taught me to find my own path to happiness. Once you start to understand how brains work and how cultures work, this possibility can be seen as effortlessly easy.

    We are uniquely, amongst the animal kingdom, prone to the condition of schizophrenia where we lose track of some of our semantic knowledge and generate material to plug the gaps and it is a continuous, though not necessarily uniform spectrum of lived experience with episodes occurring to all.

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    This is at once a boon and a risk. It may relate to the way very recent evolution finessed how the prefrontal cortex works. It may be the key to our creative and metaphorical minds and to the advent of rich language and thought. Cultures finally nail the error into us by its trick of training the very young, before they even have the brain development for careful autonomous thought. Hands together. Eyes closed. The single most atheist professions are those of psychiatry and psychology. Physics less so and maths less again. The more very bright people understand how the mind works, its cognitive failures, its confirmation bias the more they can see the very patterns of religious thinking revealed and the less religious they seem inclined to feel.

    What is the meaning of life for me? Making the most of it. If you read the bible cover to cover, ironically Jehovah behaves far more wickedly than Satan.

    To me it seems Jehovah has tricked you into thinking he is the good guy.