Amazonia, Landscape and Species Evolution: A Look into the Past

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The multidisciplinary approach in evaluating the history of Amazonia has resulted in a comprehensive volume that provides novel insights into the evolution of this region. Request permission to reuse content from this site. Part I Tectonic processes as driving mechanisms for palaeogeographical and palaeoenvironmental evolution in Amazonia.

Kroonenberg and Emond W. Wesselingh, Jussi Hovikoski and Javier Guerrero. Justin Wilkinson, Larry G. Marshall, John G. Lundberg and Mikhail H. Vonhof and Ron J.

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Part IV Cenozoic development of terrestrial and aquatic biota: insights from the fossil record. Lundberg, Mark H.


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Dahdul and Orangel A. Duivenvoorden and Alvaro J. Toby Pennington and Christopher W. Crawford, John M. Lovejoy, Stuart C. Willis and James S. Wesselingh, Carina Hoorn, Salomon B. Kroonenberg, Alexandre Antonelli, John G. Lundberg, Hubert B. Vonhof and Henry Hooghiemstra. This book will be a vital reference for Amazonian researchers and aficionados for many years to come. Current Amazonian researchers and any student contemplating graduate study in Amazonian geology, paleontology, phylogeography, or evolution should read this volume from cover to cover.

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You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Introduction: Amazonia, Landscape and Species Evolution. Frank Wesselingh. What climatic, chemical, geological and other non-biological processes were involved in the development of ER The Amazon drainage basin covers over 8 million km2 and has these ecosystems and sustain them now, and what part did they the largest rainforest on earth Sioli The Amazon River is play in the previous episodic demise of these ecosystems?

In order km long, from its source in the Andes to its mouth in the to assess ecosystem resilience it is imperative to understand the AT Atlantic, and the drainage basin includes a variety of landscapes historical i. However, the scientific debate was mostly The region is renowned for its great biodiversity, both aquatic dominated by biologists and geomorphologists using species and and terrestrial. This ; Absy et al. Salo Hubbell et al. Nutrients ; Nores ; Wesselingh and Salo ; Tuomisto ; delivered by the Amazon River to the Atlantic Ocean help to foster Antonelli yet an undisputed theory about the timing and PY oceanic life that sequesters globally relevant amounts of carbon context of Amazonian diversifications — in the light of geological Subramaniam , and in the terrestrial realm the Amazon evidence— still has to materialize.

Therefore, Amazonia is of the greatest concern to us all. However, in species composition and their distribution is still limited. Diversity the past two decades geological studies in Amazonia quickly fol- hotspots seemingly coincide with biological field stations and spe- lowed one another. The sedimentary environments in Amazonia cific large-scale biological expeditions Nelson et al.

Even the et al. Morley ; Jaramillo et al.

Kalliola et al. When did the Amazonian landscape and Dobson et al. Edited by C. Hoorn and F. Wesselingh Rull and may have coincided with regional geological events orientated intracratonic sedimentary basins were formed, which see Chapters 23— Consequently, at the turn of the millennium, acted as fluvial conduits. Seismic data and new stratigraphic charts from the Brazilian oil company Petrobras illustrate the development of these sedimentary basins in Brazilian Amazonia see Chapter 3 by A journey through the geological history of Amazonia Wanderley Filho et al.

The second major geological phase was characterized by rift- The scientific advances of the past two decades, and the newly ing and break-up of the supercontinent Pangaea. This period also gained perception that biotic and abiotic evolution might be saw the opening of the Atlantic Jurassic, c. The effort to summarize the state of the art in Amazonian geo- separation was completed during the Cretaceous after which sedi- logical sciences. This book attempts to fulfil this role. It not only mentation of the intracratonic basins was resumed c. The presents an outline of the geological history, but also assesses the third and final geological phase was determined by changes in plate implications of the geological past for landscape evolution and configuration along the Pacific.

This plate activity was an aftermath biotic diversity. The contributors show that the development of of the continental break-up and ultimately responsible for the uplift Amazonian diversity is intimately linked to landscape evolution, of the Andean Cordilleras that was initiated during the Cretaceous.

The implication of this Andean tectonism only reached a climax during the Late Miocene work is that before the Quaternary there were periods with even and Pliocene c.


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  • This resulted in intense denudation, more diverse ecosystems. The second theme focuses on the Amazonian sedi- Andean uplift remained high during the Pliocene while subduc- mentary record from the Mesozoic era to the Quaternary period. As a consequence sitional systems although Neogene and Quaternary systems are the western Amazonian lowlands, which during the Miocene a combination of both Andean and cratonic fluvial systems. In formed continuous aquatic habitats, became fragmented and dis- addition, megafan depositional systems in western Amazonia are sected see Chapter 6 by Espurt et al.

    A final marker event in also reviewed. Climatic evolution and the implications for the the geological history of northern South America was the closure Amazonian region during the Miocene are assessed in the third of the Panama isthmus around 3 Ma. Although tectonism is on- part. The Amazonian palaeontological record of the aquatic and going, this concluded the Present geographical configuration of terrestrial realms constitutes the fourth part of the book. Despite the the South American continent, its landscape and modern drain- uneven concentration of fossiliferous deposits in western Amazonia age systems see also Chapter The final, fifth, part of the book is concerned with modern Cratonic and Andean-driven depositional systems perspectives on the origin of Amazonian biodiversity.

    The book concludes with a chapter by Wesselingh et al. In history of Amazonia. The best localities for observing the out- this book we review the Mesozoic and Cenozoic cratonic fluvial crops and fossils are shown in Fig. From the Oligocene onwards Andean-driven depositional systems domi- Main geological processes shaping Amazonia nated the sub-Andean zone and western Amazonia.

    These systems through time extended to at least 1.

    A dynamic continental moisture gradient drove Amazonian bird diversification

    During the Early and Middle Miocene a lake- geological phases. The craton forms most of eastern Acre phase see Chapter 8.

    National Geographic - Amazon River - NatGeo Wild

    Andean drainages are crucial for the Amazonia and consists of ultrastable basement with landscapes soil development and distribution of species-diverse vegetation that date back to the Cretaceous and Paleogene. In terms of bio- on nutrient-rich Andean-derived substrate. Instead relatively spe- diversity these areas are relatively poor compared to the nutrient- cies-poor vegetation develops on the craton-derived substrate.

    At the end of the Proterozoic a series of east—west Amazonia has been a hotly debated topic. The locations are represented as numbers and either indicate the author or the common name of the locality. Map made by D. Riff and J. The Cenozoic Andean uplift and increased denudation rates further resulted in megafan systems along the Andean foothills Amazonian climate see Chapter 10 by Wilkinson et al. Megafans are low-gradient river systems choked by sediments, which force them to continu- Although palaeoclimatic data are hard to obtain, isotope data from ously change their courses.

    Amazonia: Landscape and Species Evolution: a Look Into the Past

    Understanding their dynamic behav- fossil molluscs and cyclicity in the sediment beds indicate that the iour sheds light on the development and distribution of aquatic modern Amazonian hydrological cycle, which ensures the year- biota. The extent of megafan depositional systems in the history round wet conditions that sustain the rainforests, was in place in of Amazonia is greatly underestimated. They outline the flu- explored by Sepulchre et al. Based on their model, vial depositional environments and processes from the foreland the role of the Andes in maintaining permanent wet conditions in basins in the west to the mouth of the Amazon in the east, and the lowlands is seemingly less prominent than one would expect.